It happened on the Mississippi River near the southwest corner of Rock Island County around 6 a.m. Saturday morning.
Authorities say 42-year-old Thomas Trainer of Canton and six others were on the water for the first day of duck season.
The group was headed for a duck blind when the driver of their boat crashed into a buoy.
One person went overboard and died.
Trainer's body slammed into the buoy, resulting in fatal injuries.
The five others, including one additional Canton resident, are being treated for injuries at various hospitals.
The cause of the crash is being investigated, and autopsies are set for Monday.
Trainer is described as an avid hunter who loved the outdoors.